Official Name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Region: Middle East

Capital: Tehran

Population: 81,824,270

Ethnic Groups: Persian, Azeri, Kurd, Lur, Baloch, Arab, Turkmen and Turkic tribes

Languages: Persian (official), Azeri Turkic and Turkic dialects, Kurdish, Gilaki and Mazandarani, Luri, Balochi, Arabic, other

Religions: Muslim (official) 99.4% (Shia 90-95%, Sunni 5-10%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, and Christian) 0.3%, unspecified 0.4%

Government: Theocratic Presidential Republic

Legislature: Islamic Consultative Assembly


A. Balochistan Conflict

Type of Conflict: Ethnic

Conventionally Dated Period: 1948 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Pakistan and Iran
  • Baloch Separatist Groups


Balochistan is a province in Southeastern Pakistan with some Baloch nationals across the border in Iran.  Even though it is rich in natural resources, it remains one of the poorest provinces.  The Baloch nationals accuse the Pakistani government of keeping them suppressed and weak.  The Balochistan Liberation Army has been conducting offensive operations in Pakistan since 2000 and has been designated a terrorist organization in Pakistan and the UK.

In Iran, a rebellion in the border provinces with significant Baloch minorities have begun but have not gained as much ground as its counterpart operation in Pakistan.

Peace Process: No


B. Kurdish Separatism in Iran

Type of Conflict: Ethnic

Conventionally Dated Period: 1918 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Government of Iran
  • Shekak Tribesmen and the Party of Free Life of Kurdistan


Just like Iraq, Turkey, and Syria, Iran contains a significant Kurdish minority who wishes to gain greater autonomy, or even independence along with other Kurdish regions to create a single Kurdish nation.  Even though Iran never conducted operations on a scale that Turkey, Iraq, or Syria did, occasional tensions and small scale combat have been seen in the past.

Peace Process: No