Official Full Name: Federal Republic of Somalia

Region: Eastern Africa

Capital: Mogadishu

Population: 10,616,380

Ethnic Groups: 85% Somali, 15% Bantu and other non-Somali

Languages: Somali (Official), Arabic (Official), Italian, English

Religions: Sunni Islam

Government: Federal Parliamentary Republic (currently under establishment)

Legislature: Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya


A. War in Somalia

Type of Conflict: Civil War and Part of the Global War on Terror

Conventionally Dated Period: 31 January 2009 – Present (War on Terror), 23 May 1986 – Present (Somali Civil War)

Parties Involved:

  • Al-Qaeda
    • Al-Shabaab
    • Foreign Mujahideen
  • Federal Republic of Somalia
    • African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
    • Non-Combat Support from the EU, NATO, United Kingdom, and France
    • Air Support from the United States


In 2004, the Transitional Federal Government drove the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) out of Mogadishu and solidified their control with the help of Ethiopia and the United States.  The ICU then splintered into many factions and the more radical elements such as Al-Shabaab continued their insurgency against the federal government.  With the help of Al-Qaeda, they managed to control many towns and infrastructure in central and southern Somalia throughout 2007-2008.  In 2009, the Islamic radicals made an attempt to secure the capital city and fought in the violent Battle of Mogadishu.  Even though they were not successful in overthrowing the federal government, they were able to secure many strategic strongholds.  A state of emergency was declared on 22 June 2011.

Peace Process: No