Full Official Name: Russian Federation

Region: Eastern Europe

Capital: Moscow

Population: 142,423,773

Ethnic Groups: Russian 77.7%, Tatar 3.7%, Ukrainian 1.4%, Bashkir 1.1%, Chuvash 1%, Chechen 1%, other 10.2%, unspecified 3.9%

Languages: Russian (official) 96.3%, Dolgang 5.3%, German 1.5%, Chechen 1%, Tatar 3%, other 10.3%

Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other Christian

Government: Federal Semi-Presidential Constitutional Republic

Legislature: Federal Assembly


A. Insurgency in the North Caucasus

Type of Conflict: Ethnic, Religious

Conventionally Dated Period: 16 April 2009 – Ongoing

Parties Involved:

  • Russia
  • Caucasus Emirate
    • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant


In 1999, President Vladimir Putin ordered forces to enter the breakaway region of Chechnya and set up a pro-Moscow government.  This prompted the surrounding states with significant Muslim minorities to set up the non-recognized state of the Caucasus Emirate.  Regions including Chechnya, Dagestan, and Kabardino-Balkaria experienced high levels of fighting years after the Russian intervention resulting in numerous Russian and Caucasian casualties.  Since 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has expressed its support for the Caucasus Emirate.

Peace Progress: No


B. War in Donbass

Type of Conflict: Ethnic, Political, Territorial

Conventionally Dated Period: 6 April 2014  – Ongoing

Parties Involved:

  • Russia, Donetsk Peoples’s Republic, Luhansk People’s Republic
  • Ukraine


In 2014, Ukraine had its Euromaidan Revolution which saw the ousting of pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych.  Sensing deeper ties between Ukraine and the European Union, Russia instigated a revolt first in the majority Russian Crimean Peninsula, then the border provinces of Donetsk and Luhansk in which as a collective is called the Donbass.  Ukraine and its Western neighbors (including the US) sees this as a Russian unilateral declaration of aggression against Ukraine and in retaliation has imposed many sanctions in various industries.

Despite numerous attempts at ceasefires, violation of ceasefire terms by both sides were common.  The current stalemate between the two sides have gained the name “the Frozen Conflict.”

Peace Process: No