Official Full Name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Region: South Asia

Capital: Islamabad

Population: 199,085,847

Ethnic Groups: Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%

Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki 10%, Pashto 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English, Burushaski, and other 8%

Religions: Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6%

Government: Federal Parliamentary Republic

Legislature: Majlis-e-Shoora


A. Kashmir Conflict

Type of Conflict: Religious, Territorial

Conventionally Dated Period: 22 October 1947 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Pakistan
    • Supported by China
  • India
  • All Parties Hurriyat
    • Supported by Pakistan


A territorial conflict with India over the Northern region of Kashmir.  Two two countries have found three wars over the region in 1947, 1965, and 1999.  India claims the entirety of the region of Jammu and Kashmir and controls 43% of the region.  Pakistan contests India’s claims and currently controls 37% of the territory.

Religion, politics, and natural resources have all been reasons for the contest of the region.  Several rivers that flow into the Indus basin originate from the Jammu and Kashmir area, therefore making the control of the region a very tactical advantage.  To this day, no agreements have been made but the Indian parliament has offered the possibility of devolving autonomy to the Kashmir province.

Peace Progress: No


B. Sectarianism in Pakistan

Type of Conflict: Mainly Religious, Ethnic

Conventionally Dated Period: 1989 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Sunni Muslim Factions
  • Shiite or Non-Muslim Factions


This conflict refers to the intermittent attacks on several sects within Pakistan, usually based on religious differences.  As a predominantly Sunni Muslim nation, attacks on heretical beliefs such as Shiite Islam, Christianity, or local folk religions are widespread and have seen limited intervention from the government.

Peace Process: No


C. War in North-West Pakistan

Type of Conflict: Extremist, Terrorism

Conventionally Dated Period: 16 March 2004 – Ongoing

Parties Involved:

  • Pakistan and the United States
  • Taliban Aligned Groups
  • Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant


While searching for Taliban hideouts in the Northwestern region of Waziristan, Taliban rebels attacked Pakistani soldiers on the grounds of their support for the International War on Terrorism.  Connected to the Afghan War in the West, this conflict has seen mass damage to the region’s economy and infrastructures.  On 1 May 2011, it was reported that the Taliban leader, Osama bin-Laden, has been killed by an US operation.

Peace Process: While no peace negotiations are currently underway, the Pakistani government has started reconstruction efforts in the devastated Waziristan region.


D. Balochistan Conflict

Type of Conflict: Ethnic

Conventionally Dated Period: 1948 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Pakistan and Iran
  • Baloch Separatist Groups


Balochistan is a province in Southeastern Pakistan with some Baloch nationals across the border in Iran.  Even though it is rich in natural resources, it remains one of the poorest provinces.  The Baloch nationals accuse the Pakistani government of keeping them suppressed and weak.  The Balochistan Liberation Army has been conducting offensive operations in Pakistan since 2000 and has been designated a terrorist organization in Pakistan and the UK.

In Iran, a rebellion in the border provinces with significant Baloch minorities have begun but have not gained as much ground as its counterpart operation in Pakistan.

Peace Process: No