Full Official Name: Republic of Iraq
Region: Middle East
Ethnic Groups: Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%
Languages: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen, and Assyrian, Armenian
Religions: Muslim (official) 99% (Shia 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian 0.8%, Other 0.2%
Government: Federal Parliamentary Republic
Legislature: Council of Representatives
A. 2014 Iraq War
Type of Conflict: Jihadist, Territorial, and Ethnic
Conventionally Dated Period: 1 January 2014 – Present
- Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Ba’ath Loyalist Party, Mujahideen Army
- Iraqi Government, Iran, Syria, CJTF-OIR (Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve), Iraqi Kurdistan
Between January and July, ISIL forces have successfully captured strategic provinces in the East including Mosul, Iraq’s second most populous city. It was reported that many Sunni groups who were unsatisfied with the Shiite dominated administration in Iraq decided to join ISIL forces. Kurdish forces, while predominantly Sunni, refused to be drawn into the conflict and took hold of their own territory in the Northeast.
In retaliation to the ISIL massacre of the Yazidis, the United States, France, UK, Turkey, and others have launched strategic air strikes against ISIL forces and managed to regain some of the captured strongholds. Though, successful Iraqi operations have mostly been offset by new ISIL gains.
ISIL’s reign in occupied regions have been seen as large tyrannical. Beheading, rape, and torture are widespread and have received criticism from international governments and organizations. To date, more than 40,000 people have died from this conflict, making it one of the deadliest in the century.
Peace Process: No