Official Full Name: Republic of India

Region: South Asia

Capital: New Delhi

Population: 1,251,695,584

Ethnic Groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

Languages: Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%

Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1%

Government: Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic

Legislature: Parliament of India


A. Insurgency in Northeast India

Type of Conflict: Secession Rebellion

Conventionally Dated Period: 1964 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • India and Bhutan
  • Several rebel factions in the Northeastern states


Known as the Seven Sisters, the Northeastern region of India consists of the provinces Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya, and Mizoram.  These provinces are connected to the rest of India by a thin strip of land, the Siliguri Corridor.  The remoteness of the region is reinforced with the fact that it is one of the few places on Earth that humans have not fully discovered yet, leading to many speculations about the flora, fauna, and natural resources that lie within.  Also due to the remoteness, the provinces of the region have been actively seeking more autonomy and in some cases independence.  Clashes with Indian forces have often been met with renewed hostility from both sides.

Peace Progress: No


B. Naxalite – Maoist Insurgency

Type of Conflict: Political

Conventionally Dated Period: 18 May 1967 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • India
  • Left Wing Insurgent Groups


The Naxalites, a group of political factions that share the same Maoist ideology, have been fighting the Indian government for control since the 1960s.  Along the “Red Corridor” in Eastern India, clashes between insurgents and the Indian military were common place.  The movement gained international attention when the 2013 Naxal Attack in Darbha Valley claimed the lives of 24 Indian National Congress Leaders.  So far, this conflict has claimed at least 13,300 lives.

Peace Progress: No


C. Kashmir Conflict

Type of Conflict: Religious, Territorial

Conventionally Dated Period: 22 October 1947 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Pakistan
    • Supported by China
  • India
  • All Parties Hurriyat
    • Supported by Pakistan


A territorial conflict with India over the Northern region of Kashmir.  Two two countries have found three wars over the region in 1947, 1965, and 1999.  India claims the entirety of the region of Jammu and Kashmir and controls 43% of the region.  Pakistan contests India’s claims and currently controls 37% of the territory.

Religion, politics, and natural resources have all been reasons for the contest of the region.  Several rivers that flow into the Indus basin originate from the Jammu and Kashmir area, therefore making the control of the region a very tactical advantage.  To this day, no agreements have been made but the Indian parliament has offered the possibility of devolving autonomy to the Kashmir province.

Peace Progress: No