Official Full Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Region: Eastern Africa

Capital: Addis Ababa

Population: 99,465,819

Ethnic Groups: Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 10.5%

Languages: Oromo 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali 6.2%, Tigrigna 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English, Arabic

Religions: Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6%

Government: Federal Parliamentary Republic

Legislature: Federal Parliamentary Assembly


A. Insurgency in Ogaden

Type of Conflict: Rebel Secession

Conventionally Dated Period: 1994 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Ethiopia
  • Ogaden National Liberation Front


Created in 1994, the ONLF attempted to merge the Ogaden region of Ethiopia with Somalia to recreate the Greater Somalian Nation.  Since then, there have been many ambushes on Ethiopian forces and government institutions, but also on foreign investment companies such as a Chinese oil company.  The Ethiopian courts have condemned multiple people affiliated with ONLF and their attacks to life sentences.  The Human Rights Watch expressed concerns in the way the Ethiopian government handled the prisoners.

Peace Process: No


B. Second Afar Insurgency

Type of Conflict: Undeclared War

Conventionally Dated Period: 1995 – Present

  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front


An undeclared war between Eritrea and Ethiopia in the Afar region.  Most of the fighting occurred between insurgent groups and government but minor skirmishes between the two countries have been witnessed.

Peace Process: No