Sudan

Sudan

 

 

 

 

Full Official Name: Republic of the Sudan

Region: Northeastern Africa

Capital: Khartoum

Population: 36,108,853

Ethnic Groups: Sudanese Arab, Fur, Beja, Nuba, and Fallata

Religions: Sunni Muslim, Christian Minority

Government: Federal Presidential Republic

Legislature: National Legislature

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A. War in Darfur

Type of Conflict: Rebel Secession

Conventionally Dated Period: 26 February 2003 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • National Redemption Front
    • Sudan Liberation Army
    • Liberation and Justice Movement
    • Justice and Equality Movement
  • Government of Sudan

Summary:

The region of Darfur in Western Sudan was originally inhabited by non-Arab Muslims who made up the majority of the population in the area.  The conflict started when the local indigenous people accused the Sudanese government for suppressing their ethnic heritage and claimed that they were the victims of an apartheid.  Rebel movements emerged to try to secure independence from Sudan. To date, this conflict has claimed more than 300,000 lives and the death toll is still rising with no resolution in sight.

Peace Process: No

 

B. Conflict in South Kordofan and the Blue Nile

Type of Conflict: Rebel Secession

Conventionally Dated Period: 5 June 2011 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Government of Sudan
  • Sudan Revolutionary Front
    • Sudan People’s Liberation Movement – North
    • Sudan Liberation Army
    • Justice and Equality Movement

Summary:

Under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), inhabitants of the disputed Southern Kordofan province were able to determine their constitutional statute. However, the failure to push through with a referendum has led to a pitting of the largely Christian, pro-SPLA Nuba people against Sudanese forces. Both countries have confirmed that they are fighting one another in the disputed town of Heglig, in South Kordofan.

Peace Process: No

 

C. Sudanese Nomadic Conflict

Type of Conflict: Regional Ethnic Conflict

Conventionally Dated Period: 2009 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Local Nomadic Groups such as  Messiria, Maalia, Rizeigat, Bani Hussein Arabic tribes, etc.

Summary:

As part of the Sudanese Civil War, local nomadic tribes have been fighting each other for land, potable water sources, and scarce natural resources.  Over the years, clashes with multiple nomadic militias have claimed more than 5000 lives and displaced as many as 350,000 people.

Peace Process: No