Nigeria

Nigeria

 

 

 

 

Full Official Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria

Region: Western Africa

Capital: Abuja

Population: 181,562,056

Ethnic Groups: More than 250 ethnic groups. Largest and most influential are Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%

Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, and other regional languages

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Government: Federal Presidential Republic

Legislature: National Assembly

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A. Boko Haram Insurgency

Type of Conflict: Jihadist Conflict

Conventionally Dated Period: 26 July 2009 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, and Niger
    • Supported by United States, Benin, United Kingdom, France, China, Canada, Iran, and Israel
  • Islamic States of Iraq and the Levant
    • Boko Haram
    • Ansaru

Summary:

Within the context of Muslim-Christian conflicts of Western Africa, the Boko Haram insurgency is the most serious out of them all.  Due to the old divisions of colonies such as German Cameroon by European Powers after World War II, now-independent countries in Africa found their sovereign territories to consist of many different ethnic tribes practising in many different religions.  The Boko Haram’s conducts were fairly peaceful for the first few years of their existence but changed when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group in 2009.  The years 2009-2010 saw many clashes between Boko Haram militants and government army corps.  Boko Haram is known to carry out terrorist actives throughout Nigeria and other countries surrounding it.  Spillovers into Cameroon happened in 2012 and into Chad and Niger since 2015.  Military aid has been received from neighboring countries in attempt to contain and counter the group.  Out of all the countries affected, Nigeria is the most hard hit with an estimated death of more then 20,200 people in 2015.

Peace Process: No

 

B. Conflict in the Niger Delta

Type of Conflict: Ethnic and Social Conflict

Conventionally Dated Period: 2004 – Present

Parties Involved:

  • Nigerian Government
  • Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta, Niger Delta’s Volunteer Force, Niger Delta Liberation Front

Summary:

The area around the Niger delta is rich in oil and petroleum.  Extraction of natural resources in the Niger delta region started as early as the 1980s.  The ethnic groups which inhabited the area felt like they were being exploited unfairly by the government and started to retaliate with violence in 2004.  After President Olusegun Obasanjo launched a mission to wipe out the local insurgents, leader Mujahid Dokubo-Asari declared an “all out war” against the government by planning and staging attacks on oil production infrastructure and foreign extraction companies.  Effects of these campaigns included multiple oil spills, environmental damage, heavy death tolls, and corruption.

Peace Process: No