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This paper intends to investigate the challenges facing disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes in post-conflict societies and suggests that inclusive approaches based on dialogue can be successful in overcoming them. Through an exploration of the complex nature of contemporary conflict this paper shows that post-conflict environments are not as straightforward as their name implies. It follows from this that DDR programmes could meet with greater success if they take into account the processes, people and incentives involved in sparking and sustaining the conflict rather than being seen as an administrative task with success measured purely in terms of military security.